Data Interpreting

Analysis of details, the most striking features, comparison and contrast

Vocabulary to show the changes while analyzing the main features in detail


Verbs for upward movement

accrued The interest will accrue
ascend The figures of benefits ascend lineally...
climb The shares climbed steadily.
enlarge The scope of expenditures got enlarged...
escalate The escalating prices...
exceed Production costs exceed…
expand The data on expanding trade...
go beyond
go up
grow The figures of student enrollmentgrew.
heighten The growing trends are heightened by…
improve The pattern has improved rapidly.
increase The overall sale of the company has increased by….
intensify The gap between …. is intensified by…
jump Exports jumped by 500 percent during the decade.
leap Sales leaped 40 percent during the Christmas season.
mount The costs mount up.
move upward
overshadow The organic materials often overshadows the other qualities.
overtake Germany rapidly overtook Britain in industrial output.
reach a peak / a maximum The final figure has reached its peak so far…
rise The expenditure of the office has risen.
rocket(ed) The number of… has rocketed from its minimal position to…
scale The variables are scaled in various ways. Manufacturing capacity has been scaled up.
shoot up The amount of… shot up suddenly.
skyrocket The figures of production have skyrocketed.
soar The cost of living soared by….
strengthen The dollar strengthened against most other currencies.
surge Shares surged to a record high.
surpass Pre-recession levels of production were surpassed in...
swell The population was swollen by a number of refugees.
top Sales are expected to top 13 mln.
transcend The results transcend normal limits or boundaries and go beyond them.
uplift The amount of precipitation will uplift due to…
upsurge upsurge in economic activity


(Adjectives)+ nouns for upward movement

a rise / an increase / an upward trend / a growth / a leap / a jump / an improvement / a climb, an upward trend / an upward tendency / a ceiling trend / an ascending trend, etc

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Verbs for downward movement

collapse Some cots collapse down...
decline The birth rate continued to decline.
decrease The rate of decrease became greater.
descend The categories are listed in descended order of usefulness.
deteriorate Deteriorating economic conditions...
diminish The expenditures have finally diminished.
dip Profits slightly dip.
dive The company's share price dived 19 % overnight.
drop The temperature dropped to the freezing point.
fall The temperature has fallen below zero. The cost of meat finally fell.
go down Income from sales tax went down…Crime has gone down 70 percent…Average life expectancy went down from about 70 to 67.
go into free-fall Pre-recession levels of production went into free fall.
lessen A lessening of tension…
plummet The prices are plummeting (down).
plunge Shares in the company plunged 18p on news that profits had fallen.
reduce The number of priority homeless cases has reduced slightly.
scale down
sink The shares sank yet again.
slide The economy slid from recession to depression.
slum The prices have rapidly slummed down.
take a nosedive The economy rates took nosedive.

(Adjectives) + nouns for downward movement

  • a collapse
  • a decline
  • a decrease
  • a descending trend
  • a downfall
  • a downward tendency
  • a downward tendency
  • a downward trend
  • a downward trends
  • a drop
  • a fall
  • a reduction
  • a slide

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Steadiness, stand-ability, flatness

  • evel out
  • immutable
  • keep steady
  • lasting
  • level(ed) off
  • level(ed) out
  • permanent
  • plateau
  • plateaued
  • prevail(ed) consistency
  • reach a plateau
  • remain constant
  • remain fixed
  • remain homogeneous
  • remain invariable
  • remain regular
  • remain stable
  • remain static
  • remain steady
  • remain the same
  • remain unfluctuating
  • remain uniform
  • remain(ed) unchanged
  • stabilize
  • stand at
  • stay(ed) uniform
  • steadfast
  • stop falling / rising
  • unaltered
  • unchanged

(Adjectives) + nouns for steadiness

  • a flat
  • a plateau
  • a stability
  • a static
  • a steadiness
  • constant
  • firm
  • no change
  • permanent trend
  • stable
  • unfaltering

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Verbs of ups and downs

  • by leaps and bounds
  • fluctuate
  • move erratically
  • move spasmodically
  • move unevenly/ intermittently
  • move up and down
  • oscillate
  • palpitate
  • rise and fall irregularly
  • vacillate
  • vary
  • wave


Nouns of ups and downs

  • fluctuations
  • oscillations
  • palpitations
  • vacillations
  • waves

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Adjectives and adverbs for changes and differences

Rapid changes

  • a marked
  • a maximal change
  • a quick rise
  • a rapid
  • a sharp
  • a significant increase / rise
  • a steep increase/decrease
  • considerable
  • dramatic
  • hurried
  • noticeable
  • quick
  • rapid
  • sharp
  • significant
  • speedy
  • substantial
  • swift

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  • considerably
  • dramatically
  • hurriedly
  • noticeably
  • quickly
  • rapidly
  • rocketly
  • sharply
  • significantly
  • speedily
  • steeply
  • substantially
  • swiftly


Moderate changes

  • a corresponding rise
  • gradual
  • moderate
  • progressive
  • sequential

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  • gradually
  • moderately
  • progressively
  • sequentially
  • somewhat


Steady changes

  • a gradual change
  • a steady
  • ceaseless
  • ceaselessly
  • steadily

Slight changes

  • a marginal rise
  • a very small change
  • insignificant
  • mild
  • minimal
  • minor
  • minute difference
  • negligible
  • slow
  • tedious
  • tiny difference

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  • fractionally
  • marginally
  • mildly
  • partly
  • slightly
  • slowly
  • tediously


Fluctuating changes

  • fluctuations
  • oscillations
  • palpitations
  • vacillations
  • variations
  • waves


Merging and interlacing patterns

  • alternation
  • amalgamating
  • confluence
  • convergence
  • flowing together
  • interception
  • interflowing
  • interlacing
  • inter-lapping
  • interleaving
  • intermittence
  • intersection
  • joining
  • merging
  • overlapping
  • rotating

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Contrasting and comparing data

We can interpret and compare data from diagrams, graphs, bar charts, pie charts. 

There can be a horizontal and vertical axes, sectors or slices of the pie chart. 

We analyze the main similarities and differences.


We use numerical and the expressions of approximation

  • a little less than
  • a little more than
  • about
  • almost
  • an equal number of
  • approximately
  • around
  • as many / much / little / few as
  • as much/many as…
  • by far the most / least
  • completely different
  • exactly
  • exactly the same number of
  • just about
  • just around
  • just below
  • just over
  • just under
  • just under
  • more / fewer / less
  • more or less
  • more or less the same
  • more than
  • much / far / a lot more / fewer
  • nearly
  • over half/twice/three times
  • roughly
  • the majority
  • the minority
  • three times more expensive than…
  • totally
  • upwards of / downwards of…
  • very nearly


We use comparing and contrasting links

  • as against / as opposed to (to compare two figures or pieces of information)
  • by comparison / in comparison
  • compared to / compared with
  • draw a parallel
  • draw an analogy
  • in contrast / by contrast
  • in proportion
  • in relation to
  • liken smb/smth
  • make / draw a comparison
  • make / draw a distinction between
  • next to / beside (our problem seems trivial next to that faced by… their achievements pale beside his)
  • unlike

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Percentage, Portion and Numbers

Percentages

  • 10% increase
  • 25 percent decrease
  • 3 times lower
  • 5 times as high as…
  • 5 times higher
  • declined to about 49%
  • double fold
  • doubled
  • dropped by 10 per cent
  • fall at 50%
  • half
  • increased by 15%
  • one-fourth
  • reached to 75%
  • stood exactly at 43%
  • the largest /highest percentage
  • three quarters
  • treble
  • tripled


Fractions

  • 4% = A tiny fraction.
  • 24% = Almost a quarter.
  • 25% = Exactly a quarter.
  • 26% = Roughly one quarter.
  • 32% = Nearly one-third, nearly a third.
  • 49% = Around a half, just under a half.
  • 50% = Exactly a half.
  • 51% = Just over a half.
  • 73% = Nearly three quarters.
  • 77% = Approximately three quarters, more than three-quarters.
  • 79% = Well over three quarters.


Proportions

  • 2% = A tiny portion, a very small proportion.
  • 4% = An insignificant minority, an insignificant proportion.
  • 16% = A small minority, a small portion.
  • 70% = A large proportion.
  • 72% = A significant majority, A significant proportion.
  • 89% = A very large proportion
  • correlation
  • in direct proportion / in inverse proportion
  • ratio / at a ratio of three to one / inverse ratio / in direct ratio / in inverse ratio
  • quotient
  • the highest / largest / lowest / smallest proportion

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Conclusion

Conclusion optionally (General statement + Implications, significant comments)

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Thanks a lot, I often need this material for my IELTS students.

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