Модальные глаголы и конструкции для привычек: will, would, used to


Willingness → will or would

Unwillingness → will not (won’t) or would not (wouldn’t)

in offers, invitations, requests, orders

Mum! Sue won’t give me back my pencil case.

I’ll give you another chance.

The top won’t come off.

The key won’t fit the lock.


General or repeated willingness in the past not for particular occasions → would

Whenever I had to go to town, Ron would give me a lift.


It was late, so Ron gave me a lift to town.


Would not - for both general and repeated or particular in the past

She wouldn’t say what was wrong when I asked.

The thought that people wouldn’t \ would buy the book.


Certainty for present or future situations → will/will not

You will know that they are arranged.

We won’t see her again before Christmas.

Certainty for past situations → will (won’t) + Perfect Infinitive

As you will have noticed, he’s cut off his beard.

They will have reached home by now.

Next Thursday, I will have owned my present car for 20 years.


Would + Perfect Infinitive for unreal situations in the past.


Characteristic behavior or habits not for particular occasions →

→ will (for present);

→ would (for past).

Every day Dan will come home from work and turn on the TV.

Early passenger planes wouldn’t hold more than 30 people.


Criticising characteristic people’s behavior or habits.

She will leave all the lights on in the house when she goes out.

I was happy when Sam left. We would talk about people’s behavior behind their backs.

Stressed would is used for particular occasions in the past. It is supposed as predictable because it was typical of a person’s behavior.


Repeated actions in the past → would (not for past states), more emotional, demands mentioning specific time: whenever, … / used to

! Would, used to are not used to say how many times, how long, at particular time.


Polite requests, orders, offers → will/would.

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