Decision-Thinking: Multiple Choice Grammar Test

Decision-thinking is not unlike poker - it often (1) _______ not only what you think, but also what others think you think and what you think they think you think. Interestingly poker, that most subjective of games, (2) _______ of considerable interest to people who are, by (3) _______ standards, good thinkers.

The great mathematician John von Neumann was, among his (4) _______ accomplishments, one of the originators of games theory. In particular, he showed that all games fall into one of two classes: there are (5) _______ he called 'games of perfect information', games like chess which (6) _______ to involve no element of concealment, bluff or luck - games where the players can, in principle, (7) _______ the best move by the application of pure logic to the available (8) _______ . Then there are 'games of imperfect information', like poker, in which it is impossible to know, in advance, that one course of action is better than (9) _______ .

One of the most dangerous (10) _______ about business (or, indeed, any activity involving human beings and human institutions) is that it can (11) _______ as a game of perfect information. Quite the reverse. Business, politics, life itself are games which we must normally play with very imperfect information. Many a business (12) _______ involves odds that would make a professional poker player (13) _______ , for the number and extent of the unknown and unknowable factors are (14) _______ often incalculable. But, as I have wished to point out, (15) _______ organizations find it comfortable or congenial to admit that they are gambling, and many still prefer to delude themselves that they are playing a sober, responsible game of chess and (16) _______, as is often the case, in a fling at the poker table.

The Professional Decision-Thinker by Ben Heirs with Peter Farrell (BrE)

1 matters matter mattered is mattering
2 being has often been have often been had often been
3 other either any some
4 more many more many another many other
5 why which that what
6 are meant are meaning meant meaning
7 be discovering discover to discover be discovered
8 datas datum data datums
9 the other others another other
10 illusion illusions Illusion’s Illusions’
11 be treating treating treat be treated
12 decide  deciding decision decisions
13 shudder to shudder shuddering would shudder
14 themselves themself themselves’ themselve’s
15 few a few little a little
16 engaging are not engaged engaged is not engaged

1.a; 2.b; 3.c; 4.d; 5.d; 6.a; 7.b; 8.c; 9.c; 10.b; 11.d; 12.c; 13.a; 14.a; 15.a; 16.b

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