Decision-Thinking: Multiple Choice Grammar Test
Decision-thinking is not unlike poker - it often (1) _______ not only what you think, but also what others think you think and what you think they think you think. Interestingly poker, that most subjective of games, (2) _______ of considerable interest to people who are, by (3) _______ standards, good thinkers.
The great mathematician John von Neumann was, among his (4) _______ accomplishments, one of the originators of games theory. In particular, he showed that all games fall into one of two classes: there are (5) _______ he called 'games of perfect information', games like chess which (6) _______ to involve no element of concealment, bluff or luck - games where the players can, in principle, (7) _______ the best move by the application of pure logic to the available (8) _______ . Then there are 'games of imperfect information', like poker, in which it is impossible to know, in advance, that one course of action is better than (9) _______ .
One of the most dangerous (10) _______ about business (or, indeed, any activity involving human beings and human institutions) is that it can (11) _______ as a game of perfect information. Quite the reverse. Business, politics, life itself are games which we must normally play with very imperfect information. Many a business (12) _______ involves odds that would make a professional poker player (13) _______ , for the number and extent of the unknown and unknowable factors are (14) _______ often incalculable. But, as I have wished to point out, (15) _______ organizations find it comfortable or congenial to admit that they are gambling, and many still prefer to delude themselves that they are playing a sober, responsible game of chess and (16) _______, as is often the case, in a fling at the poker table.
The Professional Decision-Thinker by Ben Heirs with Peter Farrell (BrE)
|2||being||has often been||have often been||had often been|
|4||more||many more||many another||many other|
|6||are meant||are meaning||meant||meaning|
|7||be discovering||discover||to discover||be discovered|
|11||be treating||treating||treat||be treated|
|13||shudder||to shudder||shuddering||would shudder|
|15||few||a few||little||a little|
|16||engaging||are not engaged||engaged||is not engaged|
1.a; 2.b; 3.c; 4.d; 5.d; 6.a; 7.b; 8.c; 9.c; 10.b; 11.d; 12.c; 13.a; 14.a; 15.a; 16.b