Test 20

PAPER I. Reading, Use of English and Grammar

Task 1

Read the text below. Match choices (A-H) to (1 -5). There are three choices you do not need to use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.

Some Ways to Feel Fit and Fabulous

1 __________

Lay on your stomach on the floor, holding in your tummy. Keeping your hips on the floor, raise your upper body with your arms until you’re on your elbows. “If back pain is muscular in origin this will be a helpful exercise,” says Dr John Cianca. “But if you’ve got a herniated disk or arthritis, it won’t help. If it hurts, you should stop.”

2 __________

Trial results suggest that most insomniacs could benefit from acupuncture. Effects can last up to 18 months - and one patient regained her lost sense of smell, too.

3 __________

A reason why eight out of ten diets fail is that they are too strict. Research at the Mayo Clinic suggests a five-point plan: eat breakfast every day; eat a variety of foods; limit daily intake of saturated fat, cholesterol and salt; cut back on sugar by using whole fruits rather than juices, and avoid sugary soft drinks and alcohol; and eat smaller portions.

4 __________

Listening to a half-hour of soft jazz music caused levels of immunoglobulin A - our body’s first defense against respiratory and other infections - to rise 14 % in a study involving 66 students at Wilkes University in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.

5 __________

If you’re suffering from a tense neck or back, take a tennis ball and place it in a tube sock. Then stand with your back against a wall, place the ball between it and you, and move your back to lower the ball over the areas that hurt but are otherwise difficult to reach. “It can work as a self-massage,” says Baylor College of Medicine’s Dr Cianca.

A Don’t crash diet to lose weight

В Squeeze in exercise

C Listen to music to be serene

D Turn on the stereo to crank up your antibodies

E Try these magic needles

F Fess up to your acupuncturist

G Take a roll to reduce strain

H Assuming a yoga posture can relieve your pain

Task 2

Read the text below. For questions (6-11) choose the correct answer (А, В, C, or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.

“Made in Ukraine”

Why do we see this inscription on our souvenirs less often?

By Alla Dubovyk, The Day

A Ukrainian gift shop has recently opened in Kyiv. Here you can buy a gift or another beautiful thing, and all merchandise originates from Ukraine. This shop, it turns out, is one of few in the capital and elsewhere in Ukraine because selling and making Ukrainian souvenirs is not a profitable business.

The trouble is that genuine Ukrainian souvenirs have been elbowed out of the domestic market by Chinese conveyor-line products whose cost and retail prices are lower, so people tend to buy foreign goods.

Ukrainian souvenirs’ only disadvantage is their price, insist their producers, because most are handmade and thus unique. Also, household goods, like tablecloths and bed linen are embellished with unique needlework and made from natural materials that are safe in terms of health.

Kyiv gift shop owners complain, however, that some domestically made souvenirs are not up to the mark and are not adjusted to the modern market. Thus, porcelain folk-decorated tableware is crude and grey and lacks modern design. In contrast, Chinese-made flower vases with stamped Petrykivka ornaments look much more attractive. Do not be surprised to read “Made in China” on a vyshyvanka (embroidered shirt/blouse) or a “Ukrainian” kumanets (a ceramic vessel). Instead of souvenirs made by Ukrainian craftsmen as national attributes, what we have on sale is foreign-produced merchandise;

Ukrainian craftsmen complain that there is still no government support of small and medium-sized business. Businessmen feel sure that the state can help the souvenir business and make it profitable.

The industrial output of Ukrainian souvenirs is in an even worse condition. “I have found only about a dozen businesses in Ukraine that keep making certified products in accordance with the national tradition, despite to the crisis and practically without any support from the government,” says Tetiana Kordonska, the owner of the gift shop that recently opened in Kyiv.

Kyiv’s factory Souvenir is a mirror reflection of the current status of this industry in Ukraine. In the 1990s it supplied decorated plates and ornamented boxes to 40 countries, working nonstop, without any problems with shipment orders. Souvenir employed almost 4,000 staff. Now you read on its website: “We regret to inform that we are currently situated in a private apartment because we lost our premises, including a gift shop and a workshop, after a hostile takeover.”

Meanwhile, foreigners are still eager to buy Ukrainian souvenirs. After visiting the Carpathians tourists bring home pieces of woodcarving, Easter eggs, and vyshyvankas. In winter they buy knitted socks and homespun woolen bedspreads. Increasingly often, however, these goods turn out to have been made outside Ukraine. Domestic craftsmen are unable to cope with the increasing market demand. You cannot make the number of goods using your hands as the Chinese can, using machines.

Before long there will be another upsurge in the market demand for Ukrainian souvenirs. Euro 2012 is an excellent opportunity to earn a quick buck from tourists. Souvenirs must be a tangible part of tourist expenses.

Taken from The Day, 8 November, 2009

6. It can be inferred from the passage that.

A people nowadays are ready to pay more for the genuine items

В gift shops offer Ukrainian souvenirs at competitive rates

C selling souvenirs makes no profit in Ukraine

D gift shops in Kyiv prosper

7. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?

A People sometimes have no idea they’re not buying the authentic things.

В Ukrainian goods are more expensive as they’re safe in terms of health.

C All goods that are being sold in Ukraine are genuine.

D People tend to buy foreign merchandise as they have better quality.

8. The author of the article claims that .

A Ukrainian bed linen is excessively embellished

В folk clothing lack modern design

C some Ukrainian souvenirs are not good enough

D Ukrainians can’t adjust to buying unique goods

9. The phrase ’are not up to the mark’ (line 10) means

A are not promoted

В are not good enough

C are old-fashioned

D are not tagged

10. Everything can be inferred from the passage, EXCEPT.

A the other company took control of the factory “Souvenir” by buying more than half of its shares

В government pays little attention to the needs of craftsmen

C sometimes businessmen are made to break the law

D the factory “Souvenir” lost its buildings and the land it used

11. It’s vivid from the passage that.

A only foreigners are solvent to buy Ukrainian souvenirs

В Ukrainian craftsmen are unable to create more attractive goods

C Ukrainian craftsmen need joint ventures

D souvenirs must be a tangible source of income for Ukrainian businesses

Task 3

Read the text below. Match choices (A-H) to (12-16). There are three choices you do not need to use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.

12. William Kidd (1645-1701), a famous Scottish pirate, first worked as a respectable New York trader and sea captain. In 1695, King William III of England commissioned him a privateer to capture certain notorious pirates and to seize goods that they had stolen. Kidd sailed from London in 1696 with a new ship and a hand-picked crew. But an English warship took some members of his crew, and he had to recruit more men in pirate-infested New York.

Kidd left New York in September 1696, and sailed across the Atlantic Ocean. He attacked a merchant fleet off the east coast of Africa. His seizure of two rich ships sailing under French passes was lawful because England was at war with France. He refused the demands of his ill-tempered crew to attack other ships. But he captured no pirates. Instead, he went to Madagascar, where he made friends with the pirates he had been sent to take.

Many of his men left him, and Kidd returned with one of the ships to the West Indies. There, he learned he had been declared a pirate. He sailed north and left gold, silver, and Indian goods with the Gardiner family on Gardiner’s Island, N.Y. The English government seized this treasure, and Kidd was arrested when he landed at Boston. He was sent to England to be tried for five acts of piracy and for the murder of his gunner, William Moore. Kidd was not allowed to have legal advice, and he could not use his personal papers. He was found guilty and hanged.

Tales and legends grew up about Kidd’s supposed buried treasure and his deeds. “The Ballad of Captain Kidd” was sung around the world. W. Irving, E.A. Poe, and R.L. Stevenson have used this legend.

13. Blackbeard (? - 1718), a British pirate, received his name from his habit of braiding his long, black beard and tying the braids with ribbon. Few pirates have looked and acted so fierce as Blackbeard. He terrorized the Carolina and Virginia coasts between 1716 and 1718 in his ship, The Queen Anne’s Revenge. He lurked in rivers or behind and bars and ruthlessly attacked all ships.

He once “took the King’s pardon”, but it lasted only a few weeks.

Blackbeard took such a toll of shipping and created so much terror along the American coast that Virginia and Carolina planters organized against him. The Virginia governor sent the ship H.M.S. Pearl out to take him alive or dead. He was caught on November 21, 1718, near Ocracoke Inlet, off the North Carolina coast. He fought desperately with sword and pistol until he fell with 25 wounds in his body.

14. Henry Morgan (1635-1688), was born Llanrhymn, Wales. As a young boy he was sent from Bristol, England to the island of Barbados as an indentured servant. This was a form of white slavery which was widely used at that time. Supposedly indentured servants were to work for approximately seven years and then be granted their freedom to pursue their own careers. Many holders of these servants tried to circumvent the English law by various means so that the servant would spend a longer time working for little.

Morgan’s freedom came when in 1654 Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell, then the ruler of England, sent a large invasion force to the West Indies with the intention of capturing Hispaniola from the Spanish. The fleet anchored in Barbados, where many young men deserted their owners to join up this invasion force.

In 1669 Morgan ventured through the tight inlets of the Maracaibo lagoon with four hundred men and a few small ships. He sacked Maracaibo, which the Spaniards had hastily abandoned upon seeing his approach.Admiral Don Del Campo, the commander of three war galleons, offered to let Morgan go provided the privateers turn over the loot they had taken from the area. Del Campo gave Morgan and his men two days to decide their fate. Morgan sent rowboats laden with men to the far shore of the island, only to have the men duck when the boats were out of sight and return to the ships with every man. The Spaniards, fearing a land assault from behind, turned their heavy guns away from the inlet and towards the vulnerable side of their fortifications. While the Spaniards were busily shifting their cannons and preparing themselves for infantry attack, Morgan raised anchor and sailed through the inlet unscathed preparing themselves for infantry attack, Morgan raised anchor and sailed through the inlet unscathed

15. The Barbarossa Brothers

Aruj and his younger brother Hizir were born in Greece in the 1470s. Aruj began his career by attacking Aegean ships from his home island of Lesbos. After being freed from slavery to the Knights of Rhodes by Egyptian forces, he began working with his brother Hizir out of the port of Alexandria with ships provided by the local ruler.

After moving to the Western Mediterranean around 1505, they flooded the base of Djerba with plunder from merchant and warships alike. Several years later, they moved to the port , of Djidjelli near Algiers after a fallout with the Sultan of Tunis, and stepped up their attacks on the Spanish, which included raiding more coastal towns and forts.

After two years of conflict with local areas still controlled by the Spanish, Aruj was killed while trying to escape a siege in the town of Tlemcan, and his brother Hizir assumed control.

16. Baden-Powell (1857-1941), founded the Boy Scout movement. His experiences as a soldier in the British Army convinced him that British boys needed more physical training and experience in outdoor life than they had been receiving. This prompted him to start the Boy Scouts in England in 1907. With his sister, Agnes Baden-Powell, he organized the Girl Guides in England two years later. As scouting spread to other nations, Baden-Powell became the most important Scout leader in the world.

Baden-Powell joined the British Army in 1876, and served in India, Afghanistan, and South Africa. During the Boer War in South Africa (1899-1902), his famous defense of Mafikeng, in spite of famine and sickness in his ranks, earned Baden-Powell promotion to the rank of major general.

Which of the following __________?

A waited in ambush and then assaulted the ships

В adopted a brilliant plan of deception

C took vengeance on Queen Anne

D was a conqueror of the seas before becoming a buccaneer

E sacked coastal towns with a sibling

F developed pay scales to determine each person’s share of the booty

G hunger and contagion notwithstanding, he raised to the high rank in the military

H was a reputable dealer and later became a poacher

Task 4

Read the text below. Choose from (A-H) the one which best fits each of (17-22). There are two choices you do not need to use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.

A Land of Myths and Legends

Beyond the shopping centres and motorways of Britain lies another land, the Britain of myths and legends. Wherever you go in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, all kinds of wonderful characters, places and stories are waiting for you. (17) ______________. Every English schoolchild knows that the forest was home to Robin Hood and his band of outlaws. Whatever the films say, the outlaws were probably all men. Maid Marian was a Victorian invention. The group included a fat priest called Friar Tuck and Robin’s faithful lieutenant, Little John - though at seven feet tall, he was hardly little.

Robin and his ’merry men’ killed and ate King John’s deer and also robbed rich travellers, giving away gold to the poor.

Even more famous than Robin Hood is ’the once and future king’, King Arthur. Situated on one of Cornwall’s most beautiful headlands, Tintagel Castle - supposedly King Arthur’s Camelot - has been a tourist magnet since Victorian times. Every summer, thousands of people visit these 12 th century ruins. (18)_____________ . Arthur, if he existed at all, lived and died in

the 6 th century, but why spoil a good story? Tintagel has always been at the heart of the Arthurian mythology.

(19)________________. You can almost picture the sword in the stone, the towers of mighty

Camelot, the Round Table, and the knights riding into battle. If you listen closely, you may even hear the sound of swords or axes chopping off Saxon heads.

Arthurian tales are complicated. (20) ____________ . As well as Arthur, the characters

include Queen Guinevere, Merlin the magician, brave Sir Lancelot and the wicked Morgan le Fay.

The other great Arthurian site is in Somerset, at Glastonbury and the Isle of Avon. In 1130, Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote The History of the Kings of Britain. It claimed that after Arthur was killed on the battlefield, he was “carried to the Isle of Avalon”. (21) _______________. He uncovered bones that were said to be those of Arthur and Guinevere. People then began to go to Glastonbury in their thousands - happily giving money to build a new abbey.

Don’t ask where Arthur was when the Vikings came in the 8 th century! (22)_____________. Like the Saxons, deep in the Oxfordshire countryside, near Compton Beauchamp village, is Wayland’s Smithy, a Neolitic burial mound. It is named after Wayland or Volund, the god of metalworking in both Saxon and Norse sagas. Wayland worked for an Icelandic king who was envious of the blacksmith’s power to attract women. The king lamed Wayland and sent him to an island. Seeking revenge, Wayland made wings and returned to punish the king.

Other stories say Wayland never reached Valhalla, but remained in England, always ready to shoe horses for those who go by. If you come on horseback, leave your horse at the hill, together with a silver coin. Go for a walk, and when you return, the horse will have new shoes and your coin will be gone.

A Despite the crowds and all the Arthur shops and cafes, it isn’t hard to imagine what life was like in Arthurian times.

В The local abbot understood how to make money from the Arthurian mythology.

C In Nottinghamshire you can walk through Sherwood Forest.

D Like the Saxons, the Vikings also invaded Britain, and both invaders brought their own sagas.

E In the 13 th century, Sherwood was the Royal hunting forest.

F Like the Saxons, the Vikings enjoyed stories about revenge.

G Writers continuously added more stories to the myth.

H Few people care that the Arthurian legend is far older.

Task 5

Read the text below. For questions (23-34) choose the correct answer (А, В, C, or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.

The Young and the Virtueless

By Emily Sohn

About half (23) _______ college students admit to cheating. Which turns (24)________ be great news - if you consider what they were (25)________ doing in high school.

An astonishing 3 out of every 4 high school students do it on a test at least once in the past year, says Rutgers University professor Donald McCabe, who has surveyed 4,500 students at 25 high schools.

A (26)_______ percentage say they have handed (27)_______ work written by some

one else. Beyond those outright cheaters, nearly 1 in 4 students admits to comparatively minor infractions, like working with others when teachers wanted each student to work alone.

The teenagers are master rationalizes. Some say that sports and other activities interfered with homework. They also claim that they cheated if the assignment seemed (28)_________ or boring. Many cited the pressure to get good grades. Indeed, to many of these kids, says McCabe, high school seems like simply a tedious hurdle. Once in college, though, many students appear to start taking school more seriously, at least when classes seem relevant (29)___________ their goals. Says McCabe: “They say, ’I’ve never cheated in my (30)_________ but distribution requirements - those don’t matter.’”

Students also cite famous cheaters as examples of what it (31)________ to succeed. As one student wrote: “This world is full of cheaters because cheaters are the ones who most often get to the (32)________ . News flash: Cheaters do prosper!” In past surveys, names like Michael

Milken and Donald Trump came (33)_______. This year, a Student put it this way: “If Clinton can do it and get (34)with it, why can’t we?”

# A B C D
23  from.  out of  of  among
24  out  off  down  about
25  improbable  probability  probable  probably
26  comparative  comparing  comparably  comparable
27  off in  of  out
28  mean  meaningless  meaningful  meaning
29  about  for  to  with
30  major  minor  main  central
31  takes  makes  does  lasts
32  bottom  top  deep  peak
32  through  in  out  up
34  around  away  ahead  across

Task 6

Read the texts below. For questions (35-46) choose the correct answer (А, В, C, or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.

Prairie Dog with Sweet Tooth Found on Farm

A wild prairie dog, usually found only in North America, (35) in a field in Lincolnshire.

The eight-inch burrowing rodent, pictured, is not actually a dog but part of the squirrel family and was found (36)________ sugar beet at a farm in Rippingale, near Grantham, last week.

A farmer spotted the animal before managing (37)_______ it in a box and calling the RSPCA for advice. An animal collection officer took the frightened prairie dog to the Ferret Rescue Centre near Bourne, which is run by Julie Stoodley.

The animal, which has been named “Sugar-Poser” by staff, (38)_________ with rotting teeth and weighed just a third of his idea body weight.

Only a handful of prairie dogs, which are native to the grassland of Canada, Mexico and the United States, live as pets in Britain and there are (39)_________ dozen in wildlife centres. It is

planned that the animal (40)_________ into a small colony at a wildlife park in Oxfordshire.

# A B C D
35  had discovered  discovering  has been discovered  discovered
36  eating  be eating  eaten  ate
37  catching  caught  to catch  catches
38  suffering  has suffered  had suffered  was suffering
39  few  a few  the few  a few of
40  will be introduced  is introduced  introduced  is introducing

Have You Ever Been to Peru?

There is one thing missing from those (41)_____________ brochure shots of Machu Picchu: the crowds. If you go in high season, you’ll be trying to commune with the spirits of the Incas alongside a few thousand other camera-toting tourists.

The peak period begins in late June, when the world-famous Inti Raymi festival (42) __________ in Cuzco. Colourful though this is, aficionados avoid it. There are just too many people.

July and August are also (43)_____________ , while the period from January through to April is wet. That leaves May - the perfect time to be in the Peruvian highlands, according to Jill Forgham, of the specialist operator Last Frontiers.

“The peak months are horrible. Hotels get overbooked and flights are hard to find,” she says. “May is perfect. Flights are (44)______________ then, and it’s harvest time, so you can see the people (45)______________ the fields. It’s also the best time to fly onwards to the Galapagos - the seas are warm and the birds (46)_____________ .”

A 16-day tour of Peru’s highlights, visiting Arequipa, Lake Titicaca, Cuzco and Machu Picchu, costs £2,805 in May - or £2,935 in August - with Last Frontiers (01296 653000, www.lastfrontiers.com), Cuzco: May, 9mm, 20°C; August, 9mm, 20°C.

# A B C D
41 A gloriously В glories C glorious D glory
42 A holds В held C holding D is held
43 A crowded В crowd C crowding D crowds
44 A cheap В cheaper C more cheap D cheapest
45 A work В working C worked D are working
46 A courting В are courted C court D are courting

PAPER II. Writing

Task 1

Read the text below. Fill in the each gap with the one word which best fits each of (47-50).

Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.

A. To move (47) ____________ in your career, your vocabulary level must at least

(48)________________the average level of the members of your profession. To excel, your vocabulary must surpass that of your colleagues.

B. Cooking a delicious home-cooked meal that all the family enjoys can give you a real (49)of achievement - but it’s (50) ____________ better when the meal is cooked for you!

Task 2

You have read about a literary competition in an English-language magazine and decided to participate. Readers are asked to send in an article about the place they visited last time. Write an article of about 180-200 words. Include the following:

  • state if you like travelling;
  • what place you visited last time and why;
  • how you got there and what your adventures were;
  • what made this place so special for you.
  • The title of your article is “The Trip of My Dream”.
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