Task 1. READING
Read the text below. Mach choices (A - H) to (1 – 5). There are three choices you do not need to use.
WHEN A COMPUTER ERROR IS A FATAL MISTAKE
Our lives depend on computers. They control our money, transport, our exam results. Yet their programs are now so complex that no one can get rid of all the mistakes.
Life without computers has become unimaginable. They are designed to look after so many boring but essential tasks — from microwave cooking to flying across the Atlantic — that we have become dependent on them.
But as the demands placed on computers grow, so have the number of incidents involving computer errors. Now computer experts are warning that the traditional ways of building computer systems are just not good enough to deal with complex tasks like flying planes or maintaining nuclear power stations. It is only a matter of time before a computer-made catastrophe occurs.
As early as 1889, a word entered the language that was to become all too familiar to computer scientists: a ‘bug’, meaning a mistake. For decades bugs and ‘de-bugging’ were taken to be part of every computer engineer’s job. Everyone accepted that there would always be some mistakes in any new system. But ‘safety critical systems that fly planes, drive trains or control nuclear power stations can have bugs that could kill. This is obviously unacceptable.
One way to stop bugs in computer systems is to get different teams of programmers to work in isolation from each other. That way, runs the theory, they won’t all make the same type of mistake when designing and writing computer codes. In fact research shows that programmers think alike, have the same type of training — and make similar mistakes. So even if they work separately, mistakes can still occur. Another technique is to produce back up systems that start to operate when the first system fails. This has been used on everything from the space shuttle to the A320 airbus, but unfortunately problems that cause one computer to fail can make all the others fail, too.
A growing number of computer safety experts believe the time has come to stop trying to ‘patch up’ computer systems. They say programmers have to learn to think clearly and to be able to demonstrate through mathematical symbols that the program cannot go seriously wrong. Until programmers learn to do this, we will probably just have to live with the results of computer bugs.
Of course, more often than not the errors are just annoying, but sometimes they can come close to causing tragedies. On the Piccadilly line in London’s Underground a driver who was going south along a track got confused while moving his empty train through a cross-over point. He started to head north straight at a south-bound train full of people. The computerized signaling system failed to warn him of impending disaster and it was only his quick human reactions that prevented a crash.
|A||Experts say «Bring back math!»|
|B||Old methods are no longer satisfactory|
|C||We couldn’t live without computer|
|D||Hotels are carefully classified|
|E||An old problem with serious consequences|
|F||A potentially disastrous mistake|
|G||Self-catering accommodation comes|
|H||Whether two new approaches solve the problem.|
Task 2. READING
Read the text below. For questions (6 – 11) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).
WHEN YOU HAVE A SORE THROAT
What causes a sore throat?
Many things can cause a sore throat. These causes include infections with viruses or bacteria, or sinus drainage and allergies, among others. You should see your doctor right away if you have a sore throat with a high fever, if you have problems breathing or swallowing, or if you feel very faint. If you have a sore throat and a fever, but you just feel mildly ill, you should visit your doctor within the next day or two. If you have a cold with sinus drainage, you may use over-the-counter medicines, like Sudafed or Actifed. Visit your doctor if this cold lasts for more than two weeks, or if it gets worse.
How does the doctor decide if I need antibiotics?
The decision to prescribe antibiotics might be based only on your history and physical exam. Antibiotics usually are prescribed only for patients who might have «strep throat», an infection caused by a bacteria called Streptococcus. A patient with strep throat might have a sore throat with fever that starts suddenly, without a cough or cold symptoms. Strep throat is very common in children from 5 to 12 years of age. The exam might show a red throat, with pus on the tonsils and swollen neck glands. If you have these signs, the doctor may do other tests to see if you need an antibiotic.
Why not just give everyone antibiotics?
Antibiotics have a small risk of causing an allergic reaction every time they are given. Some of these reactions are serious. Antibiotics can also cause other side effects, such as an upset stomach or diarrhea. An even more serious problem is that bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics if these medicines are used frequently in a lot of people. Then antibiotics wouldn’t be able to cure people’s illnesses. To prevent this from happening, doctors try to prescribe antibiotics only when they will help. Antibiotics only help when sore throat is caused by bacteria. Antibiotics don't help when sore throat is due to viruses, which are the cause of the common cold.
If my doctor doesn’t give me antibiotics, what can I do to feel better?
It will take several days for you to feel better, no matter what kind of sore throat you have. You can do several things to help your symptoms. If you have a fever or muscle aches, you can take a pain reliever like acetaminophin (Tylenol), aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil). Your doctor can tell you which pain reliever will work best for you. Cough drops or throat sprays may help your sore throat. Sometimes gargling with warm salt water helps. Soft cold foods, such as ice cream and popsicles, often are easier to eat. Be sure to rest and to drink lots of water or other clear liquids, such as Sprite or 7-Up. Don't drink drinks that have caffeine in them (coffee, tea, colas or other sodas).
Should I be concerned about any other symptoms that occur after I visit my doctor?
Sometimes symptoms change during the course of an illness. Visit your doctor again if you have any of the following problems:
Fever that does not go away in five days
Throat pain that gets so bad you can’t swallow
Inability to open your mouth wide
A fainting feeling when you stand up
Any other signs or symptoms that concern you
This information provides a general overview on sore throat and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.
|6.||If you have a high fever with a sore throat, you should see your doctor ...|
|A||within a few days.|
|C||only if you have trouble swallowing.|
|D||after you are feeling better.|
|7.||Which is NOT true about strep throat...|
|A||it is a bacterial infection.|
|B||there is pus on the tonsils|
|C||it comes with sudden fever|
|D||is rarely treated with antibiotics.|
|8.||Which is NOT a common side effect of taking antibiotics?|
|9.||Which does this article NOT recommend to make a sore throat feel better?|
|B||Drinking plenty of water|
|C||Drinking coffee and tea|
|D||Gargling with salt water|
|10.||Antibiotics will help ...|
|A||sore throats caused by viruses.|
|B||sore throats caused by bacteria.|
|C||sore throats caused by allergies.|
|D||all sore throats.|
|11.||If you have seen your doctor once for your symptoms, you should see him or her again if...|
|A||you have throat pain that gets so bad you can’t swallow.|
|B||you have a fainting feeling when you stand up.|
|C||you have a fever that does not go away in five days.|
|D||any of the above symptoms.|
Task 3. READING
Read the text below. Mach choices (A - H) to (12 – 16). There are two choices you do not need to use.
Never more in need of leadership, the Football Association is finally close to appointing a successor to Adam Crazier.
The largest teaching union has pledged to boycott «disgusting» national tests for seven, 11 and 14-year-olds.
National Union of Teachers delegates voted unanimously in favour of the attack on a key Government education policy at the union’s annual conference in Harrogate.
Conservatives made strong gains in local elections across England yesterday, bolstering the party’s battered morale and shoring up Lain Duncan Smith’s position as leader.
British Airways yesterday admitted it was having to cut ticket prices heavily to fill its planes as it revealed a sharp fall in front-of-cabin traffic last month, hit by particularly tough trading conditions.
Hungry Eleri Nicholas was about to tuck into a bowl of Tesco salad — when a locust crawled out. Housewife Eleri, 26, screamed as the four-inch insect crept out of the salad leaves and looked up at her.
Horrified Eleri said: «It was grey and horrible — like something from a horror movie». Consumer watchdogs were yesterday investigating the creepy-crawly which popped out from a ready-to-serve bag of Italian salad.
Eleri had eaten half of the salad the previous night — and was about to finish it off when the plant-eating insect suddenly appeared.
|A||Minister holds talks with CAA about troubles at MyTravel|
|B||Refusal to be involved in the procedure of evaluating teens’ performance.|
|C||SBS team’s tank ordeal|
|D||Need for a leader to be in charge.|
|E||Slashing seat prices as first-class cabin empties|
|F||How Brits get their kinky kicks|
|G||Gaining support at polls.|
|H||Gnat in the cold meal|
Task 4. READING
Read the text below. Choose from (A - H) the one which best fits each space (17-22).There are three choices you do not need to use.
CATCHING A COLD
Many people catch a cold in the springtime and/or fall. It makes us wonder... if scientists can send a man to the moon, why can’t they find a cure for the common cold. The answer is easy. There are literally hundreds of kinds of cold viruses out there. You never know(17)________.
When (18)________, your body works hard to get rid of it. Blood rushes to your nose and brings congestion with it. (19)________, but your body is actually «eating» the virus. Your temperature rises and you get a fever, but the heat of your body is killing the virus. You also have a runny nose to stop the virus from getting to your cells. You may feel miserable, (20)________.
Different people have different remedies for colds. In the United States(21)________, people might eat chicken soup to feel better. Some people take hot baths and drink warm liquids. Other people take medicines to stop the fever, congestion, and runny nose.
There is one interesting thing to note - some scientists say taking medicines when you have a cold is actually bad for you. The virus stays in you longer because your body doesn’t have a way to fight it and kill it. Bodies can do (22)________. There is a joke, however, on taking medicine when you have a cold. It goes like this:
If takes about 1 week to get over a cold if you don’t take medicine, but only 7 days to get over a cold if you take medicine.
|A||but actually your wonderful body is doing everything it can to kill the cold|
|B||a virus attacks your body|
|C||which one you will get, so there isn’t a cure for each one|
|D||the old lady|
|E||You feel terrible because you can’t breathe well|
|F||a large kitchen with cookies|
|G||and some other countries, for example|
|H||an amazing job on their own|
Task 5. USE OF ENGLISH
Read the text below. For questions (23 – 34) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).
Andy Wasnick loved the idea. Mary Arthur hated it. Kurt Mendez didn’t think it was any big (23)__________. Mr.El thought it was a brilliant idea. After all, it was his idea.
«It’s only fair», Mr. El (24)________ to his new fourth graders as they stood (25)________ waiting for the lunch bell to ring, «that we turn things around. Every year you guys line up in alphabetical (26)________. Alphabetical order to go to lunch, to go to gym, to go home, and so on. This year we’re using (27)________ alphabetical order».
Mindy Vale put her hand down as Mr. El pointed to her. «I’ve always had to stand at the (28)________ of the line, ever (29)________ kindergarten! Now I’m near the front. Thank you, thank you!»
The teacher smiled. Then he called on Christopher Cash, a serious and (30)________ young man. «Mr. El, I think you should reconsider this policy. This is very drastic and (31)________.
This could confuse our fragile young minds!»
«Put a lid on it, Chris!» shouted David Tyler.
«We won’t have any outbursts like that, David!» Mr. El said firmly. He turned toward Christopher. «Don’t (32)________, Christopher. We only have strong minds in this class».
«How many of you think this is a good idea?» Mr. El asked. As you would probably (33)________, most of the hands that went up were in the (34)________ half of the line.
|25||in line||in queue||in view||in turn|
|27||upside down||reverse||inside out||backwards|
Task 6. USE OF ENGLISH
Read the text below. For questions (35 – 46) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).
The stars are usually actors and actresses. 35__________ people do not even look at the name of the director or producer, except one — Steven Spielberg. When he was a little boy, his father showed him how to use a camera. Later he got his own camera and started to film things 36___________ like model train crashes, stories about monsters and horrible murders. His three younger sisters were always the victims. Later he made his first film at home 37__________ of twelve. It was a cowboy film three and a half minutes 38__________, and it cost $10 to make. When he was sixteen, he made a science-fiction film more than two hours long. (39)________ films was his great hobby — much more fascinating for him than school. Of course, Steven wanted to go to film school. But his high school grades were not 40_________! So he just went along to Universal Studios and 41__________ a job. Spielberg sometimes uses a lot of 42 __________ effects — in the Indiana Jones films, for example. But, like in Duel, he (43)________ a fantastic atmosphere even without special effects. E. T. is a success because of the feelings and reactions of the children. In 1994 he (44)________ the most important film prize, the Oscar, for Schindler’s List. The secret of Spielberg’s success (45)________ that the stories in many of his films somehow (46)________ as if they could happen to ordinary people like you and me.
|37||on the age||at the age||in the age||with the age|
|40||enough well||well enough||good enough||enough good|
|41||asked for||has asked for||asked||was asked for|
|43||to create||can create||created||make create|
|44||would be won||to win||won||win|
Imagine that you are planning a business trip to Edinburg. Write the letter to the Chapman Company, to Mr. Henry Smith; In your letter
thank him for the invitation you to the business forum
notify him about your arrival (the date, number of train, coach, time of arrival)
ask him to arrange for a company representative to meet you.
Write at least 100 words. Do not write any dates and addresses. Start your letter with
1.B; 2.E; З.Н; 4.A; 5.F; 6.B; 7.A; 8.C; 9.C; 10.B; 11.D; 12.D; 13.B; 14.G; 15.E; 16.H; 17.C; 18.B; 19.E; 20.A; 21.G; 22.H; 23.B; 24.D; 25.A; 26.C; 27.В; 28.A; 29.В; З0.В; 31.C; 32.В; 33.A; 34.D; 35.D; 36.C; 37.B; 38.D; 39.A; 40.C; 41.A; 42.В; 43.В; 44.C; 45.A; 46.D