ЗНО основна сесія 2012
Task 1. Reading
Read the text below. Match choices (A – H) to (1 – 5). There are three choices you do not need to use.
Shaking hands is a polite gesture indicating friendship and acceptance. At one time, however, meeting with a stranger aroused suspicion and fear. To prevent each other from suddenly attacking, strangers joined right hands as a pledge of non-aggression, thus demonstrating that neither party was about to use a weapon. Handshaking is now the activity practised by both men and women not only to greet one another, but to seal a contract as well.
The American “OK” sign, the joining of the thumb and foreﬁnger in a circle, indicates that all is well or perfect. The “OK” sign acquired its modern connotation from the ancient world, wherein the circle itself was one of the oldest and most common symbols for perfection. The verbal expression “OK” is native to the United States and was formed in support of the letter “O” indicating that something was as perfect as a circle.
When not used in hitchhiking, the thumbs-up gesture in American culture typically indicates “I like that”, while the thumbs-down gesture indicates your negative feelings towards something. The gesture has been linked to the time of the Roman arena, where the emperor supposedly orderedlife or deathfor a gladiator by turning thumbs up or thumbs down.
Crossing one’s ﬁngers serves as protection from bad luck or from the penalties associated with lying. Thus, when people wish for good luck, they cross their ﬁngers, and when they wish not to be held accountable for a lie, they cross their ﬁngers and hide their arms behind their backs to not let on that they are lying.
By sticking out their tongues, people react to situations that may be unpleasant for them. Such displays indicate laughing or rejection. For example, children often stick out their tongues to tease each other. Or, they may also stick out their tongues in reaction to activities requiring close concentration; hence, the tongue-showing of children focused on their homework.
A Cover bad breath
B Show that you are wrong
C Show that everything is ﬁne
D Indicate approval or disapproval
E Making fun or just being focused
F Indicating a feeling of helplessness
G Guard against negative consequences
H Demonstrate your peaceful intentions
Task 2. Reading
Read the text below. For questions (6 – 10) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).
As president of the Walt Disney Company’s children’s book and magazine publishing unit, Russell Hampton knows a thing or two about teenagers. Or he thought as much until he was driving his 14-year-old daughter, Katie, and two friends to a play last year in Los Angeles.
“Katie and her friends were sitting in the back seat talking to each otherabout some movie star; I think it was Orlando Bloom,” recalled Mr. Hampton. “I made some comment about him, I don’t remember exactly what, but I got the typical teenager sigh and Katie rolled her eyes at me as if to say, ‘Oh Dad, you are so out of it.’ ”
After that, the back-seat chattering stopped. When Mr. Hampton looked into his rearview mirror he saw his daughter sending a text message on her cellphone. “Katie, you shouldn’t be texting all the time,” Mr. Hampton recalled telling her.
“Your friends are there. It’s rude.” Katie rolled her eyes again.
“But, Dad, we’re texting each other,” she replied. “I don’t want you to hear what I’m saying.” Mr. Hampton turned his attention back to the freeway. It’s a common scene these days, one playing out in cars, kitchens and bedrooms acrossthe country.
Children increasingly rely on personal technological devices like cellphonesto deﬁne themselves and create social circles apart from their families, changing the way they communicate with their parents. Adults and teenagers alike found a form of easy communication unknown to the inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, and his daughters.
Andthecomputer,alongwiththeInternet,hasgivenevenveryyoung children virtual lives distinctly separate from those of their parents and siblings. Socialpsychologistswhohavestudiedthesocialimpactofmobile communications, say these trends are likely to continue as cellphones turn into minihand-heldcomputers,socialnetworkingdevicesandpint-sizedmovie screens.
“For kids it has become an identity-shaping and psyche-changing object,” Ms. Turkle said. “No one creates a new technology really understanding how itwill be used or how it can change a society.”
6. What is mentioned in the text about Russell Hampton?
A He is professionally engaged in ﬁlm production.
B He used to think he understood youngsters.
C He ﬁnds it hard to drive with kids chatting.
D He felt hurt by his daughter’s impolite reaction.
7. Why did Katie and her friends stop chattering in the car?
A Mr. Hampton ordered them to be quiet.
B They did not want to distract the driver.
C They wanted to keep their conversation private.
D They did not have anything else to talk about.
8. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text?
A Mr. Hampton tried to teach his daughter good manners.
B Katie was sceptical about her father’s views and remarks.
C The generation gap has deepened due to technological advances.
D It was easy for Alexander Bell to communicate with his daughters.
9. What can one conclude about modern children from the text?
A They use the Internet to hide their identity.
B They run away from present-day reality.
C They use cellphones to form their own community.
D They prefer texting to any other forms of communication.
10. What is stated in the text about technology developers?
A They can rarely predict the effect of their inventions.
B They should follow the advice of social psychologists.
C They concentrate their efforts on mini computers.
D They try to bridge the generation gap with their gadgets.
Task 3. Reading
Read the texts below. Match choices (A – H) to (11 – 16). There are three choices you do not need to use.