Janus: Multiple Choice Grammar Test

Janus is the Roman god of doorways, beginnings, change, and transition. He was a very important figure in the Roman pantheon, typically (1) _________ first during prayers, and the cult of Janus was at one point very widespread in Rome. Janus lives on in some surprising places; the first month of the year, January, (2) _________ for Janus, implying janitors, the keepers of doors and keys.

The most striking and memorable feature of Janus is probably his two or sometimes four faces. In classical art, he (3) _________ with two faces which pointed in opposite directions, illustrating his role (4) _________ a guardian of doorways; with two faces, he could look out on (5) _________ side of the doorway to see what (6) _________. On occasion, busts of Janus showed four faces instead of two, and in full statues, Janus typically holds a key in his right hand.

Janus’ original role was probably as the guardian of doorways, with his later duties (7) _________ by sub­sequent worshipers. The link between doorways and new beginnings is pretty obvious, as is the association with change. Janus (8) _________ at major life events like coming of age parties, weddings, and New Year’s parties, with those praying to Janus for good fortune.

Janus also came (9) _________ with war, thanks to the Janus Geminus, a large temple in Rome.

By tradition, the doors of this temple were left open during periods of war, and closed in periods of peace. Soldiers often visited the temple (10) _________ its doors in the hopes of (11) _________ by the god so that they could perform well in war.

The god was also linked with endings, as a doorway can appear at the end of a journey just as it can at the beginnings. In some regions, Janus was said (12) _________ of predicting events, thanks to his double-faced head, which presumably didn’t miss much. Romans sought advice from Janus about major deci­sions, hoping that he could illuminate the best path to follow.

In the modern era, Janus is also used as a metaphor for the often complex nature of humanity. Janus is often referenced in art with two-faced individuals who have (13) _________ different faces, such as the face of a man and the face of a woman. The Romans probably did not think about Janus in this way, although they undoubtedly thought about duality and betrayal, just as modern people do.

1 was naming being named having named to be named
2 names naming is named named
3 was depicted depicted is depicted has been depicted
4 such like as if as
5 neither neither any either
6 happened was happening has been happening is happening
7 having to add having added being added adding
8 often worshipped is often worshipping was often worshipped being often worshipped
9 association to associate associate to be associated
10 to pass in to pass out of to pass at to pass through
11 being blessed to bless blessing having blessed
12 to be capable be capable being capable capable
13 marked mark markedly marking

1.B; 2.C; 3.A; 4.D; 5.D; 6.B; 7.C; 8.C; 9.D; 10.D; 11.A; 12.A; 13.C

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