|Read the newspaper article. Choose from (A—G) the one which best fits each of (1—5).There are two choices you do not need to use.|
Learning to Manipulate DNA
After scientists had unraveled the structure and replication mechanisms of DNA, many felt that the major discoveries of genetic research were resolved. They predicted that the only task left in genetics was to sort out the molecular details of how genes work. But in the process of studying gene function, researchers developed powerful new molecular techniques.
A number of discoveries made during the 1960s and 1970s shed light on how distinct fragments of DNA could be isolated. The work of Swiss molecular biologist Werner Arber focused on specialized enzymes that digest, or “restrict,1’ the DNA of viruses infecting bacteria. These enzymes were subsequently dubbed restriction enzymes. In the following decade, scientists learned that restriction enzymes could also act like molecular scissors to cut DNA.
In 1970 American molecular biologist Hamilton Smith and colleagues determined that restriction enzymes could cleave DNA molecules at precise and predictable locations. Hamilton concluded that the enzymes were able to recognize specific nucleotide sequences.
Scientists quickly realized that restriction enzymes could be used in the laboratory to manipulate DNA. In 1973 American biochemist Herb Boyer used restriction enzymes to produce a DNA molecule with genetic material from two different sources. This splicing technique is now known as recombinant DNA. Boyer inserted foreign genes into plasmids and observed that the plasmids could replicate to make many copies of the inserted genes. In subsequent experiments, Boyer, American biochemist Stanley Cohen, and other researchers demonstrated that inserting a recombinant DNA molecule into a host bacteria cell would lead to extremely rapid replication and the production of many identical copies of the recombinant DNA. This process, known as cloning, gave scientists the power to make many copies of desired DNA for molecular study.
The speed and efficiency of DNA cloning were vastly improved in the 1980s with the invention of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Developed by American biochemist Kary Mullis, PCR enables scientists to produce large amounts of DNA sequences in a test tube.
In a matter of hours, the process can produce millions of cloned DNA molecules.
Yet all of the advances in isolating and replicating DNA would not be possible or be of much use if researchers could not determine the nucleotide sequence of genetic material. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, British biochemist Frederick Sanger and his associates developed DNA sequencing techniques. With the use of automated equipment, the new techniques transformed genetic sequencing into a speedy, routine laboratory procedure.
Many of the new techniques for isolating, sequencing, and replicating DNA have been put to practical use through the field of genetic engineering. The Human Genome Project and the new field of proteomics have both benefited from continuing technical advances and have accelerated the development of new genetic technologies.
Modern genetics is poised to radically change the practice of medicine and the biotechnology industry.
|A||DNA discovery is the most important one.|
|B||Development of DNA cloning.|
|D||Discoveries of 1960s and 1970s.|
|F||Discovery made in 19 70.|
|Read the text below. For questions (6 – 10) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).|
|6.||What does a reaction include?_____________|
|A||Extreme anger and fear.|
|B||Certain physiological changes.|
|C||An accelerated or retarded pulse rate.|
|D||A change in body temperature.|
|7.||What are little children gifted of?___________|
|A||A violent physical manifestation.|
|B||Memory and association.|
|C||A momentary loss of voice.|
|D||The three primary reactions; anger, love, and fear.|
|8.||What is different between emotions of a child and a grown-up?____________|
|A||The same condition that encourages anger in a child may bring fear in a grown up.|
|B||Their emotional reactions may be conditioned.|
|C||Their three primary reactions.|
|D||The emotions are not the same.|
|9.||What may bravado be result of?_______________|
|10.||What was not said in the text?______________|
|A||What an emotion is.|
|B||What physiological changes may be as a result of emotions.|
|C||What emotions are important for learning.|
|D||What happens in all emotional reactions.|
|Read the text below. For questions 11—15 choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).|
Celebrating 70 Spectacular YearsThere is no place in all of New York that so magnificently captures the spirit and the vitality of this great city like Radio City Music Hall. For 70 years, the Showplace of the Nation has been the centre of extraordinary entertainment for people from all corners of the globe who fill the thunderous cheers and applause in appreciation for what they see on the Great Stage. In its various incarnations as variety showplace, movie place and concert venue, the Hall has presented the finest entertainment attractions on a stage that experts consider the best in the world. And today, as Radio City Music Hall celebrates its anniversary, the Art Deco palace has never looked better.
Because the Music Hall was designated a landmark in 1978, the entire building is continually under a historic preservation effort. All public areas of the theatre, including the Foyer, Grand Lounge, Auditorium must be maintained in their original design, colour and style. Indeed, Radio City Music Hall represents the consummate melding of yesterday and today.
As Radio City begins its eights decade, work is underway to further enhance the splendour and elegance that define this jewel of Rockefeller Centre. Recent renovations include the magnificent ticket lobby ceiling, which was restored to its original opening night grandeur through a painstaking gold leafing process. And Radio City ushers sport brand new uniforms matching those worn here in the 1930’s.
|11.||Where do people come to the Hall from?___________________|
|A||From all over the world.|
|B||From the USA.|
|D||From the USA and Canada.|
|12.||What do experts consider the best in the Hall?_________________|
|13.||What does the word landmark mean?____________________|
|A||A piece of land that you can see clearly from a distance.|
|B||Something (e. g. a large building) that you can see clearly from a distance and that will help you to know where you are.|
|C||A sign that helps you to know where you are.|
|D||Something (e. g. a theatre) you can see when you look across a large area of land.|
|14.||What does the Radio City belong to?__________________|
|B||The Great Stage.|
|C||The Art Deco.|
|15.||What does ushers uniform look like?__________________|
|A||Like all other uniforms in the city.|
|B||Like Rockefeller’s suit.|
|C||Like it was in 1978.|
|D||Like it was in 1930’s.|
|Read the text below. For question 16—20 choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).|
Willie Drop was a small town fellow. He had his own business, and his own home, and would have been a happy man except for the fact that he suffered from dizzy spells and saw spots before his eyes. The local doctor could do nothing for him, so he advised a change of climate, suggesting California.The weather in California was wonderful. Willie got a nice place to live in and he lived very well, but he still had dizzy spells and saw spots before his eyes. He went to a doctor. The doctor said, “Willie, you made a mistake coming to California. It is too damp here. What you need is a dry climate like Arizona.”
So Willie closed his new business and went to Arizona. He liked it, but he still had dizzy spells and saw spots before his eyes. He went to a doctor. The doctor said, “You had better take a trip around the world, and find out just which climate is best for you.”
So Willie prepared to take a trip around the world. While buying clothes for the trip, he went to a shop and asked for size 14 shirts. The clerk politely suggested that he should take size 16. “No,” said Willie, “I want size 14.”
“But,” said the clerk, “you really should have size 16.”
Willie did not agree, “I asked for size 14 and I want size 14, I’ve always worn size 14.”
“Very well”, the clerk shouted, “go ahead and buy size 14 if you want to have dizzy spells and see spots before your eyes!”
|16.||Where did Willie live at the beginning of the story?____________|
|C||In a small town.|
|17.||What did the doctor offer?_____________|
|A||Going to California.|
|B||Buying a shirt.|
|C||Starting a new business.|
|18.||What is the synonym of the word “damp”?_______________|
|19.||What was the reason of Willie’s illness, as the doctor saw it? ________________|
|A||A dry climate.|
|C||A damp climate.|
|20.||What was the true reason of Willie's illness?________________|
|A||A wrong size of his shirts.|
|B||A wrong treatment.|
|C||A Californian climate.|
|Read the text below. For each of the empty space (21-25) choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D).|
|Read the text below. Choose from (A—G) the one which best fits of (26—30).There are two choices you do not need to use.|
|B||emphasize different aspects of friendship|
|C||on the internet|
|F||or even the people that take the bus with us|
|G||is a friend indeed|
|Read the text below. For each of the empty space (31—46) choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D).|
Henry Rider HaggardKing Solomon’s Mines
...Well, it is eighteen months or so since I first met Sir Henry Curtis and Captain Good, which is the real beginning of my story. That was in 1885.1 had been hunting an elephant beyond Bamangwato and (31)________(to have) bad luck. Everything (32)________(to go) wrong on that trip, and to top up with I (33)________(to get) the fever badly.
As soon as I (34) _ (to be) well enough I (35) _(to sell) such ivory as I (36)________(to have) and took myself down to the Cape. That evening over the camp fire George Curtis (3 7)________(to tell) us his story. A little short of two years before he (38)________ (to start) from Sitanda’s Kraal to try to reach the mountains. He (39)________(to take) a different route from the one we (40)________(to follow) and, finally, (41)________(to reach) this oasis. On the day of their arrival, George (42)________(to sit) by the stream and Jim (43)________(to be) on top of the bank above him, trying to get honey from the nest of a stingless bee.
As he (44)________(to reach) out, he (45)________(to loosen) a boulder which (46)________ (to fall) upon George Curtis’s right leg and crushed it.
|31||to have||had had||was having||has got|
|32||going||will go||went||to go|
|33||had got||to get||getting||got|
|34||was||have been||to be||been|
|35||have sold||sold||having sold||to sell|
|36||to have||will have||had||had done|
|37||told||to tell||had told||will tell|
|38||starting||had started||to start||started|
|39||to take||taken||had taken||taking|
|40||had followed||following||followed||to follow|
|41||reached||to reach||had reached||reaching|
|42||to sit||had been sitting||sat||would like to sit|
|44||has reached||reached||was reaching||to reach|
|45||to loosen||loosened||loosening||can loosen|
51. Your task is to announce about a new Internet club at school.
1.D; 2.F; 3.E; 4.B; 5.C; 6.B; 7.D; 8.A; 9.A; 10.C; 11.A; 12.C; 13.B; 14.A; 15.D;16.C; 17.A; 18.C; 19.B; 20.A; 21.D; 22.B; 23.A; 24.B; 25.D; 26.C; 27.E; 28.B; 29.F; 30.D; 31.B; 32.C; 33.D; 34.A; 35.B; 36.C; 37.A; 38.B; 39.C; 40.A; 41.C; 42.B; 43.A; 44.C; 45.B; 46.D