Test 18

Task 1


Read the newspaper article. Choose from (A—G) the one which best fits each of (1—5).There are two choices you do not need to use.

Learning to Manipulate DNA

After scientists had unraveled the structure and replication mechanisms of DNA, many felt that the major discoveries of genetic research were resolved. They predicted that the only task left in genetics was to sort out the molecular details of how genes work. But in the process of studying gene function, researchers developed powerful new molecular techniques.

( 1)________

A number of discoveries made during the 1960s and 1970s shed light on how distinct fragments of DNA could be isolated. The work of Swiss molecular biologist Werner Arber focused on specialized enzymes that digest, or “restrict,1’ the DNA of viruses infecting bacteria. These enzymes were subsequently dubbed restriction enzymes. In the following decade, scientists learned that restriction enzymes could also act like molecular scissors to cut DNA.

( 2)________

In 1970 American molecular biologist Hamilton Smith and colleagues determined that restriction enzymes could cleave DNA molecules at precise and predictable locations. Hamilton concluded that the enzymes were able to recognize specific nucleotide sequences.

( 3)________

Scientists quickly realized that restriction enzymes could be used in the laboratory to manipulate DNA. In 1973 American biochemist Herb Boyer used restriction enzymes to produce a DNA molecule with genetic material from two different sources. This splicing technique is now known as recombinant DNA. Boyer inserted foreign genes into plasmids and observed that the plasmids could replicate to make many copies of the inserted genes. In subsequent experiments, Boyer, American biochemist Stanley Cohen, and other researchers demonstrated that inserting a recombinant DNA molecule into a host bacteria cell would lead to extremely rapid replication and the production of many identical copies of the recombinant DNA. This process, known as cloning, gave scientists the power to make many copies of desired DNA for molecular study.

( 4)________

The speed and efficiency of DNA cloning were vastly improved in the 1980s with the invention of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Developed by American biochemist Kary Mullis, PCR enables scientists to produce large amounts of DNA sequences in a test tube.

In a matter of hours, the process can produce millions of cloned DNA molecules.

Yet all of the advances in isolating and replicating DNA would not be possible or be of much use if researchers could not determine the nucleotide sequence of genetic material. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, British biochemist Frederick Sanger and his associates developed DNA sequencing techniques. With the use of automated equipment, the new techniques transformed genetic sequencing into a speedy, routine laboratory procedure.

( 5)________

Many of the new techniques for isolating, sequencing, and replicating DNA have been put to practical use through the field of genetic engineering. The Human Genome Project and the new field of proteomics have both benefited from continuing technical advances and have accelerated the development of new genetic technologies.

Modern genetics is poised to radically change the practice of medicine and the biotechnology industry.

A DNA discovery is the most important one.
B Development of DNA cloning.
C Genetic engineering.
D Discoveries of 1960s and 1970s.
E Restriction enzymes.
F Discovery made in 19 70.
G Chemistry.

Task 2


Read the text below. For questions (6 – 10) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).
Emotion is a term frequently and familiarly used as synonymous with feeling. In psychology it signifies a reaction involving certain physiological changes, such as an accelerated or retarded pulse rate, the diminished or increased activities of certain glands, or a change in body temperature, which stimulate the individual, or some component part of his or her body, to further activity. The three primary reactions of this type are anger, love, and fear, which occur either as an immediate response to external stimuli or are the result of an indirect subjective process, such as memory, association, or introspection. The American psychologist John Watson proved in a series of experiments that infants are capable of these three emotions; he also demonstrated that emotional reactions may be conditioned.The external stimuli diminish in importance, as a direct cause of the individual’s emotional reaction, in proportion to the individual’s maturity, and the stimuli that elicit these emotions develop more complexity. Thus, the same environmental condition that inspires anger in a child may cause fear in an adult. Momentary physiological change or distortion accompanies all emotional reactions, as in the instance of the accelerated heart action during a fit of anger. Fear, for example, may result in a violent physical manifestation such as the quaking of the limbs or a momentary loss of voice. It may also, by way of contrast, result in an attempt to disguise itself by means of an assumed coolness or even bravado.
6. What does a reaction include?_____________
A Extreme anger and fear.
B Certain physiological changes.
C An accelerated or retarded pulse rate.
D A change in body temperature.
7. What are little children gifted of?___________
A A violent physical manifestation.
B Memory and association.
C A momentary loss of voice.
D The three primary reactions; anger, love, and fear.
8. What is different between emotions of a child and a grown-up?____________
A The same condition that encourages anger in a child may bring fear in a grown up.
B Their emotional reactions may be conditioned.
C Their three primary reactions.
D The emotions are not the same.
9. What may bravado be result of?_______________
A Fear.
B Love.
C Anger.
D Physical exercise.
10. What was not said in the text?______________
A What an emotion is.
B What physiological changes may be as a result of emotions.
C What emotions are important for learning.
D What happens in all emotional reactions.

Task 3


Read the text below. For questions 11—15 choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

Celebrating 70 Spectacular YearsThere is no place in all of New York that so magnificently captures the spirit and the vitality of this great city like Radio City Music Hall. For 70 years, the Showplace of the Nation has been the centre of extraordinary entertainment for people from all corners of the globe who fill the thunderous cheers and applause in appreciation for what they see on the Great Stage. In its various incarnations as variety showplace, movie place and concert venue, the Hall has presented the finest entertainment attractions on a stage that experts consider the best in the world. And today, as Radio City Music Hall celebrates its anniversary, the Art Deco palace has never looked better.

Because the Music Hall was designated a landmark in 1978, the entire building is continually under a historic preservation effort. All public areas of the theatre, including the Foyer, Grand Lounge, Auditorium must be maintained in their original design, colour and style. Indeed, Radio City Music Hall represents the consummate melding of yesterday and today.

As Radio City begins its eights decade, work is underway to further enhance the splendour and elegance that define this jewel of Rockefeller Centre. Recent renovations include the magnificent ticket lobby ceiling, which was restored to its original opening night grandeur through a painstaking gold leafing process. And Radio City ushers sport brand new uniforms matching those worn here in the 1930’s.

11. Where do people come to the Hall from?___________________
A From all over the world.
B From the USA.
C From Europe.
D From the USA and Canada.
12. What do experts consider the best in the Hall?_________________
A Movie palace.
B Variety showplace.
C Stage performances.
D Concerts.
13. What does the word landmark mean?____________________
A A piece of land that you can see clearly from a distance.
B Something (e. g. a large building) that you can see clearly from a distance and that will help you to know where you are.
C A sign that helps you to know where you are.
D Something (e. g. a theatre) you can see when you look across a large area of land.
14. What does the Radio City belong to?__________________
A Rockefeller Centre.
B The Great Stage.
C The Art Deco.
D The Foyer.
15. What does ushers uniform look like?__________________
A Like all other uniforms in the city.
B Like Rockefeller’s suit.
C Like it was in 1978.
D Like it was in 1930’s.

Task 4


Read the text below. For question 16—20 choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

Willie Drop was a small town fellow. He had his own business, and his own home, and would have been a happy man except for the fact that he suffered from dizzy spells and saw spots before his eyes. The local doctor could do nothing for him, so he advised a change of climate, suggesting California.The weather in California was wonderful. Willie got a nice place to live in and he lived very well, but he still had dizzy spells and saw spots before his eyes. He went to a doctor. The doctor said, “Willie, you made a mistake coming to California. It is too damp here. What you need is a dry climate like Arizona.”

So Willie closed his new business and went to Arizona. He liked it, but he still had dizzy spells and saw spots before his eyes. He went to a doctor. The doctor said, “You had better take a trip around the world, and find out just which climate is best for you.”

So Willie prepared to take a trip around the world. While buying clothes for the trip, he went to a shop and asked for size 14 shirts. The clerk politely suggested that he should take size 16. “No,” said Willie, “I want size 14.”

“But,” said the clerk, “you really should have size 16.”

Willie did not agree, “I asked for size 14 and I want size 14, I’ve always worn size 14.”

“Very well”, the clerk shouted, “go ahead and buy size 14 if you want to have dizzy spells and see spots before your eyes!”

16. Where did Willie live at the beginning of the story?____________
A In Arizona.
B In California.
C In a small town.
D In Europe.
17. What did the doctor offer?_____________
A Going to California.
B Buying a shirt.
C Starting a new business.
D Visiting relatives.
18. What is the synonym of the word “damp”?_______________
A Warm.
B Cold.
C Wet.
D Deep.
19. What was the reason of Willie’s illness, as the doctor saw it? ________________
A A dry climate.
B A climate.
C A damp climate.
D A weather.
20. What was the true reason of Willie's illness?________________
A A wrong size of his shirts.
B A wrong treatment.
C A Californian climate.
D His business.

Task 5


Read the text below. For each of the empty space (21-25) choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D).
Hello, this is Jane Smith. I am speaking to you from Oxford, where the (21)________ of the World Quiz (22)________ will be held tomorrow. The favourite is Kite Young of Cornwall, the man who knows everything. Twelve month (23)________ no one had heard of him, although he had been taking in quiz competitions for years. Now (24)________ he is a big star. So far this year he has answered every single question correctly. And he is popular too. When he arrived here two days ago, hundreds of fans were waiting at the station to welcome him. (25)________ his arrival he has been reading encyclopaedias in his hotel.
21 exams finally favourites finals
22 Tournament Championship Congress Competition
23 ago last yet since
24 again suddenly lately nearly
25 Before After Instead of Since

Read the text below. Choose from (A—G) the one which best fits of (26—30).There are two choices you do not need to use.
Almost everyone has friends but ideas about friendship vary from person to person. For some, a friend is someone who chats with you (26)________. For others, a friend is a person who has known you all your life — someone whose family knows you, too. Others only use the term for someone who knows your (27)________. Although different people (28)________, there is one element which is always present and that is the element of choice. We may not be able to select our families, our colleagues (29)________ but we can choose our friends. Anthropologist Margaret Mead once said, “A friend is someone who chooses and (30)________.” It is this freedom of choice that makes friendship such a special relationship.
A a person
B emphasize different aspects of friendship
C on the internet
D is chosen
E innermost secrets
F or even the people that take the bus with us
G is a friend indeed

Task 7


Read the text below. For each of the empty space (31—46) choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D).

Henry Rider HaggardKing Solomon’s Mines

...Well, it is eighteen months or so since I first met Sir Henry Curtis and Captain Good, which is the real beginning of my story. That was in 1885.1 had been hunting an elephant beyond Bamangwato and (31)________(to have) bad luck. Everything (32)________(to go) wrong on that trip, and to top up with I (33)________(to get) the fever badly.

As soon as I (34) _ (to be) well enough I (35) _(to sell) such ivory as I (36)________(to have) and took myself down to the Cape. That evening over the camp fire George Curtis (3 7)________(to tell) us his story. A little short of two years before he (38)________ (to start) from Sitanda’s Kraal to try to reach the mountains. He (39)________(to take) a different route from the one we (40)________(to follow) and, finally, (41)________(to reach) this oasis. On the day of their arrival, George (42)________(to sit) by the stream and Jim (43)________(to be) on top of the bank above him, trying to get honey from the nest of a stingless bee.

As he (44)________(to reach) out, he (45)________(to loosen) a boulder which (46)________ (to fall) upon George Curtis’s right leg and crushed it.

31 to have had had was having has got
32 going will go went to go
33 had got to get getting got
34 was have been to be been
35 have sold sold having sold to sell
36 to have will have had had done
37 told to tell had told will tell
38 starting had started to start started
39 to take taken had taken taking
40 had followed following followed to follow
41 reached to reach had reached reaching
42 to sit had been sitting sat would like to sit
43 was being to be been
44 has reached reached was reaching to reach
45 to loosen loosened loosening can loosen
46 fallen to fall falling fell

51. Your task is to announce about a new Internet club at school.


1.D; 2.F; 3.E; 4.B; 5.C; 6.B; 7.D; 8.A; 9.A; 10.C; 11.A; 12.C; 13.B; 14.A; 15.D;16.C; 17.A;  18.C; 19.B; 20.A; 21.D; 22.B; 23.A; 24.B; 25.D; 26.C; 27.E; 28.B; 29.F; 30.D; 31.B; 32.C;  33.D; 34.A; 35.B; 36.C; 37.A; 38.B; 39.C; 40.A; 41.C; 42.B; 43.A; 44.C; 45.B; 46.D

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