TASK 1. READING
Read the text below. Mach choices (A - H) to (1 – 5). There are three choices you do not need to use.
Air pollution can cause an asthma attack and is thought to cause a rising number of hospital admissions and early deaths. Air pollution is the change of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical or biological agent. The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural system that is the main to support life on planet Earth.
Worldwide air pollution is responsible for large numbers of deaths and cases of respiratory disease. While the major are the mobile sources, mainly automobiles. Gases such as carbon dioxide, which contribute to global warming, are recognized as pollutants by climate scientists, while they also recognize that carbon dioxide is essential for plant life through photosynthesis.
We should lessen the number of automobiles on the road or invent other type of the machine that will not use oil. Today one family can have two or more cars, which makes the air pollution rate higher. Public transport is less dangerous for atmosphere than a car. It is better to use it in order to save the environment.
Walking and cycling are two of the best ways to help to reduce pollution, they are also a great way to improve your fitness and save you money. Try walking or cycling to work or school instead of taking your car.
Water pollution is a large effect upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. Transport is also one of the major factors of water pollution. Water is a vital part of life. Our organism partially consists of water. Everything alive must drink; water controls a lot of vital processes. The Earth would die without water. Using transport we produce some agents which kill water fauna and flora.
As we can see the situation with air and water pollution caused by means of transportation leads to global results and negative effects on our planet’s life.
A The world problem of transport.
B Ways to reduce contamination.
C Defining the term.
D Air pollution is caused by factories.
E The problem of the forests cutting.
F Beneficial both for nature and health.
G Vehicles are another cause of contamination.
H Fatal consequences.
TASK 2. READING
Read the text below. For questions (6 – 11) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).
A new study says ancient snow on top of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania could be gone in about twenty years. Huge layers of ice formed on the African mountain during a wet period about eleven-thousand years ago. But scientists say the ice on top of the mountain is melting because of rising temperatures in recent years. Lonnie Thompson of Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio led the study. It was published in Science magazine. The scientists used maps, modem navigational satellites and markers placed on the mountain to measure the ice. They found that the ice on Mount Kilimanjaro has shrunk from about twelve square kilometers in nineteen-twelve to about two square kilometers today. That is about an eighty percent reduction in the ice. Scientists say the ice will be gone by two-thousand-twenty if it continues to melt at its current rate. Mount Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa, it is almost five-thousand-nine-hundred meters high. The top part of the mountain is covered with snow. The mountain rises above flat land, called the savannah. The land is home to many different kinds of animals. Many stories have been written about the famous mountain. The most famous is Ernest Hemingway’s «The Snows of Kilimanjaro». Some ancient beliefs in Africa consider the mountain to be a holy place. About twenty-thousand people visit Mount Kilimanjaro every year to see the famous snow-topped mountain. It even has its own international airport. The government of Tanzania fears that the melting ice will affect tourism and weaken the economy. The decreasing ice already has reduced the amount of water flowing from the mountain to some Tanzanian rivers. Water from the mountain supplies many villages. The scientists are working to save pieces of the shrinking ice for more study. The frozen layers tell about Africa’s weather in ancient times. The ice also provides information about the world’s climate. Experts say other ice glaciers around the world are melting because of climate change caused by human activities. But they say natural climate change could be the cause of Mount Kilimanjaro’s problems.
6. According to a new study
A huge layers of ice were formed on the African mountain during a dry period
B it will take around two decades for snow to disappear on top of the mountain
C the ice on top of the mountain is melting because of rising temperatures in ancient times
D. a river level rises due to the ice melting
7. The scientists found that
A the ice on Mount Kilimanjaro has shrunk by about ten square kilometers
B volcano caused eighty percent reduction in the ice
C maps and modem navigational satellites could not measure ice
D the ice will be multiplied by two-thousand-twenty if it continues to melt at its current rate.
8. The ice top of the mountain is melting because of... .
A increasing pollution
B increasing tourism
D increasing temperature
9. Mount Kilimanjaro rises above flat land called ... .
10.The government of Tanzania fears that
A the economics will be negatively impacted by the increasing amount of melting snow
B there will be a dramatic shortage of water in wells
C the rivers will get dried very soon
D the world’s climate will improve
11. The scientists are working to save
A reduced amount of ice on the water glaciers
B water supplies around the world
C ice glaciers around the world
D the thinning layer of ice on the mountain for more study.
TASK 3. READING
Read the text below. Mach choices (A - H) to (12 – 16). There are two choices you do not need to use.
So, I’m the only child in the family and I like it. Of course I’m spoilt a little but it doesn’t disturb me. The attention is all mine, consequently I’m the apple of my parents’ eyes. I feel lucky, and my friends are jealous because of my single state, particularly because I don’t have to share a bedroom. It’s an advantage. You get undivided attention from your parents. Being alone made me close to animals but it also made me quite demanding. If you don’t have sisters or brothers you need friends and so I tried hard to make them, I am good at making them still and such experience is very useful nowadays.
It may be true that an only child is spoilt, but, believe me, there are occasions on which you wish there was a brother or sister to share problems, but when you solve you problems yourself you tend to become strong and rational person, and it’s better to spend more time in the company of adults than with your contemporaries.
In the latter situation parents are overprotective, underestimating their child’s skills and talents and often criticizing his efforts to be independent. Thus he is not sure of his real value. His start into adult life seems to be easier when we take into consideration welfare, comfort and living standards. But from the point of view of maturity his start is more difficult as he becomes independent later than his friends of the same age and sometimes cannot solve simple problems at work because so far his parents have always done it for him.
It is much more difficult to bring up the only child as the process of teaching him the terms of living in a society is rather artificial. In their books, educational films, and therapy meetings, psychologists give a lot of positive evidence that multi-children families provide a better psychological and socially healthier environment for development.
The parents’ effort to rear their children is rewarded when the children grow up. And when the parents are old it is impossible to be forgotten — form the bunch of kids there is at least one or two who will always remember to hasten with assistance to their loving parents.
A Parents use money to control their children.
B Family is the little community.
C Learning to be confident and reasonable.
D Consequences of over - patronizing.
E Only rich people can afford more than one child.
F Debt of gratitude.
G Lack of socializing.
H Benefits of having no sibling.
TASK 4. READING
Read the text below. Choose from (A - H) the one which best fits each space (17-22).There are three choices you do not need to use.
More than two thousand years ago the early Britons (17)________ of the Thames.
The site had many advantages. It was defended on two sides by rivers. It lay in the center of the most fertile region. The old Britons gave the town its name, Lyndin, the Romans made it the center of their colony, the Germanic invaders tied to burn and destroy it, the victorious Normans made it the capital of the country. So the physical layout of contemporary London is (18)________.
The fort of Londinium, founded by the Romans in the 1st century AD, and the administrative center established at Westminster 1000 years later(19)________in Central London.
At the time of the Roman occupation of Britain in the 1st century AD,(20)________, in the 12th century King Alfred made London the capital of his kingdom.
After William the Conqueror established himself in England, he began construction of the Tower of London, intending it as a citadel to overawe the populace. Many Normans settled in London and erected imposing edifices.
Throughout the Middle Ages the development of London was slow and was repeatedly arrested (21)________. The opening by Queen Elizabeth 1 of the Royal Exchange in 1566 marked the growth of the city expanded it might become too powerful. Queen Elizabeth 1 issued a proclamation prohibiting the construction of any new building within a radius of 4,8 km outside the city gates.
In 1665, during the Great Plague, nearly 70,000 Londoners(22)________. The epidemic was followed by the Great Fire of 1666, which destroyed most of the walled section of the city. Because the Rebuilding Act of 1667 stipulated that only stone and brick be used, the new buildings that rose from the mins bore little resemblance to the simple wooden dwellings of old London.
A by wars, epidemics and commercial crises
B the end product of complex historical events
C died of to the disease with a period of a year
D an elderly couple's house
E London was already a town of considerable importance
F a living room with fireplace
G served as the nucleus for following development
H established a settlement on the north bank
TASK 5. USE OF ENGLISH
Read the text below. For questions (23 – 34) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).
I was cycling to work on Monday when a car nearly (23)________ me over. I nearly fell (24)________ my bicycle. I followed the car. It could not go (25)________ because there were many other cars. Then I was behind it. I banged (26)________ the roof. Suddenly, I saw the (27)________ Police on the side of the car. The passenger, a policeman, got (28)________. ‘What are you doing?’ he said. ‘The driver (29)________ knocked me (30)________ !’ I said. ‘You’re police officers. You (31)________ drive more carefully!’ The policeman took out his notebook. He wanted to take my name and address. He wanted me to go to the police (32)________. Then the driver said, ‘Sorry. 1 didn’t see you. It was my mistake’ I (33)________ my finger and said, ‘(34)________ on!’, and they did.
TASK 6. USE OF ENGLISH
Read the text below. For questions (35 – 46) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).
In the turbulent centuries that followed the Norman invasion, several efforts (35)________ to establish universities in Ireland. In 1311, John de Leah, Archbishop of Dublin, (36)________ a bill from Pope Clement V (37)________ him to establish a university in Dublin, but he died before (38)_____________ had been done. An attempt (39) ___________ in 1465 (40)___________a university in Drogheda; this was (41)____________, as far as the Parliament of the England Pale (42)___________- do it, with all the rights and privileges of the university of Oxford. The parliament concerned was presided over by Tomas, Earl of Desmond; two years later he (43)________ and beheaded, his estates were (44)________, and once more the idea of a university (45)________ to nothing. At last, in 1591, the idea (46)________.
|to be obtained
|to be found
|to be founding
|to be endowing
|to be endowed
|to being endowed
|will be able
|to be confiscate
Write down a short description of your favourite book using the following plan. Write at least 100 words.
- The information about the author of the book.
- The information about the book.
- The title of the book, the genre.
- The plot of the book.
- The main characters of the book.
- The language and the style of the book.
- Your personal attitude to the book.
- What you like in the plot.
What the main idea of the work is to your mind.
1.C; 2.Н; З.В; 4.F; 5.G; 6.В; 7.А; 8.D; 9.В; 10.С; 11.D; 12.Н; 13.С; 14.D; 15.G; 16.F; 17.Н; 18.В; 19.G; 20.Е; 21.А; 22.С; 23.А; 24.В; 25.С; 26.А; 27.В; 28.В; 29.А; З0.С; З1.В; 32.С; ЗЗ.А; 34.А; 35.В; 36.А; 37.D; 38.С; 39.С; 40.А; 41.В; 42.С; 43.В; 44.А; 45.D; 46.В