Task 1. READING
Read the text below. Match choices (A - H) to (1 – 5). There are three choices you do not need to use.
The USA is a federal union of 50 states. The basic law is the constitution, adopted in 1787, which prescribes the structure of national government and lists its rights and fields of authority. Each state has its government and all of them have the dual character of both Federal and State government. The political system of the USA is divided into three branches: judicial, legislative and executive. Each branch holds a certain degree of power over the others, and all take part in the governmental process.
The flag is called the stars and the stripes and old glory. It was adopted in 1777. The red stripes proclaim courage, the white — liberty, and the field of blue stands for loyalty.
The coat of arms of the US represents an eagle with wings outspread, holding a bangle of rods (the symbol of administer) in the left claw and olive twig (the emblem of love) in the right claw. The motto of the coat of arms is ‘one out of many’.
Although the American system of government is based on Great Britain’s, it differs in having a written constitution that is the bases of all government and law. The constitution of the US was adopted after the War of Independence on the 17th of September 1787. It lists the set of rules, law regulations, which provide the practical norms, regulating the work of the government. The document embodied the practical theories of man of property. The main principle underline the constitution was as follows: «Private property is the backbone of liberty». It was put forward by a rich plantation owner from Virginia James Madison, who is known to be a father of the constitution.
The constitution consists of Preamble and seven articles. 27 amendments have so far been added to its original text. The first 10 amendments, known as «the Bill of Rights’, were added in a group in 1791. These amendments establish the individual rights and freedoms to all people of the states, including freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of worship etc. Americans feel that of all freedoms, proclaimed in the constitution, there is only one freedom — the freedom of enterprise. But it means freedom of the wealthy people only. The 21st amendment limited the President’s ruling by maximum two terms.
Inauguration always takes place on the 20th of January, it is an official act of installing the President of the USA to his office. Inauguration is connected with some traditions. Thus the incumbent. President gives dinner on the eve in honour of the President elected and to conduct him threw the White House. By 12 o’clock of the 2nd of January two participants of the ceremony and guests take their places in front of the Capitol. The central point of the ceremony is the taking of an oath by the President and the delivering of his Inaugural speech; it is regarded as a declaration of principles, proclaimed by the new administration. The ceremony ends in a military parade.
An incumbent is someone who holds an official post at a particular time.
The US began as a one party political system. But gradually two-party system appeared. The present-day Democratic Party was founded in 1828, representing southern states. It united slave owners. The Republican Party was founded in 1854 and united people from Northeast, who were against slavering. The emblem of the Democratic Party is a donkey. The emblem of the Republican Party is an elephant. The main task of the parties is to win elections. One of the reasons of stability at the two party systems is family tradition to inherit politics from fathers.
|A||The rights and freedom of the Americans.|
|B||Stating people's rights and duties.|
|C||The role of the elected head.|
|D||The political system of the USA.|
|E||National emblems of the USA.|
|F||What is included.|
|G||The major political parties of the country.|
|H||The Senate of the USA.|
Task 2. READING
Read the text below. For questions (35 – 46) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).
Most people do not know that Juliette Gordon Low, the founder of the Girl Scouts of America, was deaf. She began to lose her hearing when she was 17, and became almost totally deaf in her adulthood.
Juliette Gordon was bom on October 31, 1860, in Savannah, Georgia. Her family and friends all called her Daisy. When she was 14 she was sent to a school in Virginia that was run by some of Thomas Jefferson’s grand-daughters. A few years later, at the age of 17, she transferred to a school in New York.
Juliette married William Mackay Low and they went to England to live. Juliette became interested in the Girl Guides Association there. She observed their meetings and was very impressed because the girls acquired many useful skills. They learned how to cook, knit, tie knots and give first aid. They also learned about the history of the flag. Moreover, they developed important social skills as they learned how to work together. Juliette thought that girls everywhere should have this opportunity, so she decided to organize more troops.
Juliette organized several Girl Guides troops in both England and Scotland. Since she could not do all the work herself, she had to ask other women to help her. Sometimes the women were reluctant to give their time due to family responsibilities. However, Juliette was a very determined woman. When the women refused, she would pretend that she didn’t understand what they said. As a result, the women helped her in spite of being busy.
Juliette always persevered until she motivated others to help her with her goals. One encounter that required her persistence happened while she was in Scotland. She was walking along a road one day when she came to a stream. The only way across the stream was by a foot log, and Juliette was afraid to cross it alone. She was wondering what to do when she saw a peddler coming down the road. She told the peddler to go across the bridge first, and she would follow with her hand on his shoulder. Although the peddler started to protest, her stubborn insistence again paid off. He reluctantly led her across the foot bridge. Once they were safely on the other side, the peddler explained to her that he was blind!
When Juliette came back to America for a visit, she started the first Girl Guides troop in the country in her home town, Savannah. By the time she went back to England six months later, there were six Girl Guide troops in Savannah. At that time, the girls each made their own uniforms.
In 1913, the Girl Guides changed its name to the Girl Scouts. Juliette Low came back to Savannah that same year. She decided that there should be Girl Scout troops all over the United States, so she worked toward that goal. The first national Girl Scout convention was held in Washington, DC, on June 10, 1915.
Juliette died in Savannah on January 17, 1927. Thanks to her, there are now Girl Scouts all over the world. Juliette’s home in Savannah is a national Girl Scout center.
|A||Juliette liked the uniforms they Girl Guides wore.|
|B||Other people set up their own troops because they were jealous of Juliette.|
|C||Juliette helped to start all six of these troops.|
|D||The girls in the first troop argued and had to be separated into six different troops.|
|A||she had a very high fever.|
|B||she was 17 years old.|
|C||she got married.|
|D||she organized the Girl Scouts.|
|A||The women were eager to help her start Girl Guides troops.|
|B||The women wanted to help, but had something due that they needed to work on.|
|C||The women were in charge of other families.|
|D||The women didn’t want to help her because they were too busy with their families.|
|A||Juliette Low, a deaf woman, used determination and persistence to start Girl Scout troops all over the world.|
|B||Juliette Low, a deaf woman, was very pushy and always got what she wanted.|
|C||Juliette Low, a deaf woman, traveled to many different places in her life time but ended up back in Savannah.|
|D||Without Juliette, the Girl Scouts would still only be a British phenomenon.|
|A||Went to England, married William, watched the Girl Guides meetings, organized her own Girl Guides troops.|
|B||Watched the Girl Guides meetings, went to England, married William, organized her own Girl Guides troops.|
|C||Married William, went to England, organized her own Girl Guides troops, watched the Girl Guides meetings.|
|D||Married William, went to England, watched the Girl Guides meetings, organized her own Girl Guides troops.|
|A||Juliette had to work because her husband didn’t make enough money.|
|B||Juliette enjoyed being busy and helping others.|
|C||Juliette wanted to be a Girl Guide herself, but she was too old.|
|D||Juliette’s husband didn’t approve of her involvement in this association.|
Task 3. READING
Read the text below. Mach choices (A - H) to (12 – 16). There are two choices you do not need to use.
(12)_________The ongoing changes in social, political and economic spheres of the country entails not only the raise of women’s role in society, in addition they are accompanied by breaking of stereotypes to treat human beings by sex that had been shaping through decades. Free economic relations and democratization of all spheres of life create the basis for eventual equal social rights for any human being regardless of sex, for both men and women. From a legal point of view, a man and a woman in Ukraine are equal. However, in practice, there are no real mechanisms of women’s rights fulfillment as well as for their active participation in social life.
Such questions as women and their place in the society, their political and social activity as well as enlightening of those problems in mass media; questions of creation of informational data-base as well as maternity and childhood cannot be effectively solved by governmental bodies, especially in the situation of economic crisis.
Housework, chores and raising children are generally considered to belong to a woman’s domain. Despite the fact that birthrates in the country have been falling, children are obstacles in the labor market. It is understandable that women decide to defer having children later or do not have children at all. Along with that, there is a lack of knowledge about modem contraception and a correspondingly large number of abortions.
A lack of state financing in social programs has caused further tightening in the labor market, particularly for women. Female unemployment is rising at a catastrophically high rate. Women have less access to retraining programs than men, while women entrepreneurs are a rarity.
Women’s social status is a serious problem. Few female decision-makers can be found in positions of social importance. This strengthens the stereotype of «male superiority» and hinders the creation of true partnerships between men and women.
|A||Women are restricted in the spheres of politics and government.|
|B||Female’s social role.|
|C||Lack of gender cooperation.|
|D||The importance of women’s public organizations.|
|E||Underestimating women in the job market.|
|F||No gender discrimination.|
|G||The controversy over a woman’s mission.|
|H||The reflections of equity is equal rights.|
Task 4. READING
Read the text below. Choose from (A - H) the one which best fits each space (17-22). There are three choices you do not need to use.
The origins of chocolate can be traced back to the ancient Maya and Aztec civilizations in Central America who first enjoyed a much-prized spicy drink ‘chocolate’, (17)________.
Chocolate was exclusively for drinking until the early Victorian times when a technique for making solid ‘eating’ chocolate was devised. Throughout its history, whether as a cocoa or drinking chocolate beverage or confectionery treat,(18)________.
The story of cocoa begins with cocoa trees, which grew wild in the tropical rain forests of the Amazon basin and other tropical areas in Central and South America for thousands of years. It was the Maya Indians, (19)________ still live in Central America, who first discovered the delights of cocoa as long ago as 600 AD. ‘Chocolatl’ was consumed in large quantities by the Aztecs (20)________ . The Aztec version of this popular drink was described as ‘finely ground, soft, foamy, reddish, bitter with chilli water, aromatic flowers, vanilla and wild bee honey.’ The Yucatan Peninsula,
(21)________, where wild cocoa trees grew, was where the Maya lived. They harvested cocoa beans from the rain forest trees, then cleared areas of lowland forest to grow their own cocoa trees in the first known cocoa plantations.
The Maya Indians and the Aztecs had recognized the value of cocoa beans both as an ingredient for their special drink and (22)________ cocoa was brought to Europe.
An early explorer visiting Central America found that 4 cocoa beans could buy a pumpkin; 10 could buy a rabbit; 100 were needed to buy a slave.
|A||as currency for hundreds of years before|
|B||an ancient people whose descendants|
|C||rich capital city|
|D||made from roasted cocoa beans|
|E||an official act|
|F||chocolate has always been a much sought after food|
|G||a tropical area in what is now Southern Mexico|
|H||as a luxury drink|
Task 5. USE OF ENGLISH
Read the text below. For questions (23–34) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).
In 1638, in the palace in Lima, Peru, a rich young woman lay very ill. She was the wife of the Viceroy, appointed by the King in Spain. The young woman had malaria and she drifted between hot dry fevers, shivering and shaking (23)________ cold, and then sweating heavily. The family and their doctor tried (24)________ that they could but it seemed that there was nothing they could do.The woman became weaker and weaker and her family (25)________ that she would die.
Eventually, in desperation, a doctor suggested trying a (26)________ that he had heard was used (27)________ the north of the country. It was made from the bark of a tree and it was called quinquina. The family was (28)________ to try anything and they quickly sent someone to collect some. The bark of the tree was obtained as quickly as possible, and boiled to (29)________ the quinquina.
To the surprise of her family, the young woman quickly recovered. In fact, the woman was the first European to be cured (30)________ quinine. Once she realized the (31)________ of the medicine, she used it both in Peru and in Spain to help to cure her workers when they had malaria. Gradually, the effectiveness of the bark became (32)________ by more people. They realized the value of the medicine they could get from the bark of the tree. It became more and more expensive and by 1840 it cost about £2 (33)________ one kilogram in weight, which is (34)________ to about £400 today.
Task 6. USE OF ENGLISH
Read the text below. For questions (35 – 46) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).
Cadbury’s as we know it today started 35_________ humble beginnings in Bull Street, Birmingham. A shop was opened by John Cadbury in 1824. It did not start 36____________ a confectionery shop but sold tea and coffee and home made drinking chocolate or cocoa which he made himself for his customers.In those days cocoa and chocolate was a luxury and affordable by only 37____________. John’s experiments with chocolate and a strong marketing campaign soon made him a leading trader in Birmingham. The shop did very 38 _________ and (39)________ more and more popular.
John Cadbury moved into the manufacturing of drinking chocolate and cocoa. By 40___________ Cadbury operated from a factory in Bridge Street. The chocolate industry (41)________ a boost in the 1850s when the government (42)________ the high import taxes on cocoa. Chocolate was now within reach of the masses. Cadbury’s (43)________ a Royal Warrant in 1854 as manufacturers of chocolate for Queen Victoria.
After such a successful start, the business fell upon hard times. John Cadbury’s sons Richard and George struggled with the business after their father (44)________ in 1861. However, new processes and new products (45)________ the business improve. By the turn of the decade they (46)________ move from the Bridge Street factory to what is now Boumville.
|36||as though||such as||as||as if|
|37||the wealthy||wealthy||the wealthier||wealthier|
|39||will become||became||become||has became|
|40||early 1840s||the early 1840s||the early 1840th||an early 1840s|
|41||be given||were given||would be given||was given|
|42||reduced||to reduce||reduces||will reduce|
|43||give||was given||be given||were given|
|44||to retire||retires||retire||had taken up|
|46||were able||be able||was able||would be able|
Describe any famous painting you like according to the proposed scheme below. Write at least 100 words.
1. General information about the painting.
1.1. The author of the painting.
1.2. The composition of the painting.
1.3. The style and history of the painting.
2. The objects and the materials of the painting.
2.1.Detailed description of the objects on the painting.
2.2.The materials the painting is done of and with.
2.3.The dominating colours of the painting, its general mood.
3.Your personal attitude to the masterpiece.
1.E; 2.B; 3.F; 4.C; 5.G; 6.C; 7.B; 8.D; 9.A; 10.D; 11.B; 12.F; 13.B; 14.G; 15.E; 16.C; 17.D; 18.F; 19.В; 20.H; 21.G; 22.A; 23.D; 24.C; 25.C; 26.A; 27.В; 28.В; 29.A; З0.С; 31.А; 32.В; 33.C; 34.D; 35.B; 36.C; 37.A; 38.В; 39.B; 40.B; 41.D; 42.A; 43.B; 44.D; 45.D; 46.A